The Grand Canyon’s bent rock layers, investigated by Dr. Snelling, can’t bend quickly without certain metamorphic changes in it’s structure. Evidence for these changes are not to be found in the rock. So, these layers were ‘bent’ so to speak before they hardened to rock, while they were still mud: they hardened into their current rock layers in place.
If there was no slow bending, then the Uniformitarian assumption of “millions of years to deposit layer of rock” is simply not tenable. The actual facts must be acknowledged regarding the formation of the Grand Canyon: it was formed quickly, and not over millions of years.
The Original Document
Editor’s note: This article was adapted from a news release that was recently distributed to the media.
A bedrock belief of evolutionary geologists has been convincingly undermined today with the publication of ground-breaking Grand Canyon research conducted by geologist Dr. Andrew Snelling of Answers in Genesis (AiG).
A scientist with the highest credentials, Dr. Snelling spent more than four years studying layers in the walls of Grand Canyon in Arizona, especially where those rock layers are not lying flat but are folded. Dr. Snelling, a creationist, has just released his stunning findings in the peer-reviewed Answers Research Journal. His research helps confirm a rapid formation of those massive Canyon layers and contradicts the belief that they were formed over millions of years, as is commonly accepted by geologists. His in-depth paper can be found at https://answersingenesis.org/geology/rock-layers/petrology-tapeats-sandstone-tonto-group/.
Throughout Grand Canyon, thick rock layers appear which are smoothly bent (some close to being at a right angle—see photo). Dr. Snelling observes, “Normally, solid rock cannot bend without breaking, so this leaves only two options for bending: either the rock layer was bent while still soft, shortly after being deposited by water, or after the layer had fully hardened, it was bent by pressures which made the rock plastic, like playdough. Geologists who believe the layers were laid down over millions of years accept the latter option.”
The massive Carbon Canyon fold, with the rock unit bent 90 degrees (Note the person in the photo for scale.)
Dr. Snelling points out that for hardened rock to bend without breaking, it must undergo metamorphic changes in its mineral content and structure, including at the microscopic level. At the outset of his research, his question was this: Is there any evidence of the hard rock in the bent layers being metamorphosed?
Dr. Snelling examined samples from two prominent folds in Grand Canyon. His research concluded: “By comparing the Tapeats Sandstone samples from the folds with other Tapeats Sandstone samples located far from the folds, no metamorphism has occurred. Therefore, our four-year research project confirms that these rock layers were bent while they were still soft, after rapid deposition.” Dr. Snelling also concludes, “This is tremendous evidence that the Canyon’s rock layers were laid down during a massive flood and subsequently bent before any of the layers had hardened.” Dr. Snelling suggests this evidence is consistent with the effects of Noah’s flood and its aftermath.
The “uniformitarian” argument—namely, that the layers of rock (or “strata”) at huge canyons like Grand Canyon were laid down over millions of years—has been powerfully challenged by this seminal study of rocks Dr. Snelling personally collected inside the folds of the Canyon.
The quandary now for those who argue for millions of years for the Canyon’s layering is this: How could these hard layers, which were bent supposedly 450 million years after they formed, not shatter during the bending process? Dr. Snelling declares: “Observational science tells us that rock layers must be soft when they fold. But over the supposed 450 million years, how could they possibly have remained soft until they were then bent?”